On macOS, one popular technique to inject code into other applications is leveraging the DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES environment variable, which I wrote about in 2019 DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES DYLIB injection in macOS / OSX. This variable can store a colon-separated list of dynamic libraries to load before the ones specified in the target process.

Several limitations apply to when this injection technique can be used and when it cannot, which I also discussed. I revisited this topic, not only because things might have changed since then but also to ensure that I didn’t miss anything. It turned out to be a wise move and a useful exercise.

The restrictions around the use of environment variables are implemented in dyld2.cpp, specifically in the configureProcessRestrictions function. When I analyzed the function in more detail, it turned out I had overlooked an important point previously.

In this post, we will cover how the dyld dynamic linker restriction decision process is different on newer versions of the OS. With that, we will uncover a previously undiscussed or undocumented AppleMobileFileIntegrity (AMFI) system call.

The full post is available on Offensive Security’s blog: